Risk resources

Risk Workshop reading list

The following lists of references and resources are based on information developed for our Risk Management for Collecting Organisations Workshops. Please feel free to use it to guide your reading in the area. Jump ahead to the section you are interested in by clicking on a title in the list of four blue headings below.

General references
Official Standards

Web resources
Other resources

General references

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 2007. ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications. Chapter 21 – Museums, Galleries, Archives and Libraries: 1-23. (See notes below at Resources.)

Antomarchi, C., A. Brokerhof, S. Michalski, I. Verger, and R. R. Waller, 2005. Teaching Risk Management of Collections Internationally. Collections: A Journal for Museum and Archives Professionals. Vol. 2(2): 117-140.

Appelbaum, B. 2007. Conservation Treatment Methodology. Butterworth-Heineman, Oxford, 437pp. 

Apostolakis, G. 2004. How useful is quantitative risk assessment? Risk Analysis. Vol. 24(3): 515-520.

Ashley-Smith, J. 2001. Practical uses of risk analysis. The Paper Conservator. Vol. 25: 59-63.

Ashley-Smith, J. 1999. Risk assessment for object conservation. Butterworth-Heineman, Oxford, 358pp.

Baer, N.S. 2001. Risk management, value and decision-making. The Paper Conservator. Vol. 25: 53-58.

Baer, N.S. and F. Snikars. 2001. Rational decision-making in the preservation of cultural property. Dahlem Workshop Report 86. Dahlem University Press, Berlin, 304pp.

Baer, N.S. 1984. Risk assessment as applied to the setting of solvent toxicity limits.  In N.S. Brommelle, E. Pye, P.Smith and G. Thomson (eds) Adhesives and consolidants. Preprints of the International Congress. International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. Paris: 27-31. 

Bradley, S. 2005. Defining suitability of museum galleries by risk mapping. Preprints of the 14th Triennial Meeting of the International Council of Museums Committee for Conservation. The Hague: 574-581.

Brokerhof, A.W. 2006. Collection risk management – the next frontier. Presented at the Canadian Museums Association Cultural Property Protection Conference. Ottawa, 16 January 2006. 5 pp.

Brokerhof, A.W., T. Luger, B. Ankersmit, and F. Bergevoet, R. Schillemans, P. Schoutens, T. Muller, J. Kiers, G. Muething, and R. Waller. 2005. Risk assessment of Museum Amstelkring: application to an historic building and its collections and the consequences for preservation management. Preprints of the 14th Triennial Meeting of the International Council of Museums Committee for Conservation, The Hague, September: 591-596.

Bullock, V.M. 2012. The Marriage of Risk Assessment and Significance Assessment: challenges and opportunities. Guest edited by Robert Waller 'The International Symposium on Cultural Property Risk Analysis', a focus issue of Collections: A Journal for Museum and Archives Professionals, Vol. 8(4), Fall, pp. 307-322.

Bullock, V.M. 2012. Integrated Collection Management: an investigation into combining collection significance assessment and risk assessment for training purposes. Australian Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Material (AICCM) Bulletin, Vol. 33, pp. 62-72.

Bullock, V.M. 2011. Collections Management: its value as a unifying concept. Preprints of the 16th Triennial Conference of the International Council of Museums Committee for Conservation, Lisbon, September. Available for purchase at: http://www.criterio.biz/icom-cc-preprints-2011/

Canadian Conservation Institute. 1994. Framework for Preservation of Museum Collections Wallchart. (See notes below at 'Resources'.)

Cato, P., R.R. Waller, L. Sharp, J. Simmons, and S. L. Williams (eds). 1996. Developing Staff Resources for Managing Collections – an initiative cosponsored by the Canadian Museum of Nature and the Virginia Museum of Natural History.  Special Publication number 4 of the Virginia Museum of Natural History. 71pp. Available for purchase at: http://www.vmnh.net/products/cats/id/58/special-publications

Hopkin, P. 2010. Fundamentals of Risk Management – understanding, evaluating and implementing effective risk management. The Institute of Risk Management, London, 320pp.

Hubbard, D.W. 2009. The Failure of Risk Management – why it’s broken and how to fix it. John Wiley and Sons. Hoboken, New Jersey, 281pp.

Li, G. 2010. Calculating Community Risk: a transdisciplinary inquiry into contemporary understandings of risk. In V.A. Brown, J.A. Harris and J.Y. Russell (eds) Tackling Wicked Problems: through the transdisciplinary imagination. Earthscan, London, 312pp. 

Meul, V. 2008. Safeguarding the significance of ensembles: value assessments in risk management for cultural heritage. Preprints of the 15th Triennial Meeting of the International Council of Museums Committee for Conservation. New Delhi, Vol. 2: 1048-1055.

Michalski, S. 2000. A systematic approach to preservation: description and integration with other museum activities. In A. Roy and P. Smith (eds) Tradition and Innovation – advances in conservation. Preprints of the International Congress. International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. Melbourne: 8-11.

Michalski, S. 1990. An overall framework for preventive conservation and remedial conservation. Preprints of the 9th Triennial Meeting of the International Council of Museum Committee for Conservation. Dresden: 589-591.

Muething, G., R. Waller, and F. Graham, F. 2005. Risk assessment of collections in exhibitions at the Canadian Museum of Nature. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation. Vol. 44(3): 233-243.

Taylor, J, Blades, N. and Cassar, M. 2006 Dependency modelling for cultural heritage, Proceedings of Safeguarded Cultural Heritage - Understanding and Viability for the Enlarged Europe, eds. M. Dradcky and M. Chapuis, Prague: Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic pp. 51-59.

Taylor, J. 2005. An integrated approach to risk assessments and condition surveys. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation. Vol. 44(2): 127-141.

The Best in Heritage, 2004. Canadian Museum of Nature wins awards for its commitment to preservation, particularly through its 'innovative risk management approach to the conservation of natural history collections and the Museum's commitment to effectively sharing this expertise with others': http://www.thebestinheritage.com/presentations/2004/canadian-museum-of-nature,105.html [Malfunctioning link noticed January 2015]

Valis, S. 2000. Conservation strategy for the natural science collections at the Australian Museum: a technical note. AICCM Bulletin. Vol. 25: 41-46.

Waller, R. and G. Muething. 2004. Assessing risks to your collection. Workshop booklet from the American Institute for Conservation 32nd Annual Meeting. Portland, Oregon.

Waller, R. 2003. Cultural property risk analysis model: development and application to preventive conservation at the Canadian Museum of Nature. Göteborg Studies in Conservation. Vol. 13. Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. Available for purchase at: http://www.ub.gu.se/publicera/acta/univ/gsc.xml for around $AUD40.00 incl. postage. (Swedish Kroner 200+).

Waller, R. 1994. Risk management applied to preventive conservation. Preprints of the 15th International Congress. International Institute for Conservation of Historical and Artistic Works. Ottawa: 12-16.


Official Standards

Official Standards purchase is in the form of a limited license for own professional use.

The following standards can be accessed through the Significance International website under the Resources tab, under the ‘Risk analysis and management’ heading.

AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 Australian /New Zealand/International Standard Risk management – principles and guidelines.

HB 327:2010 (Handbook) Communicating and consulting about risk.(Companion to AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009)

AS/NZS 5050: 2010 Australian/New Zealand Standard Business continuity – managing disruption-related risk.

HB 266:2010 (Handbook) Guide for managing risk in not-for-profit organisations.

BS EN 31010:2010 (British Standard/European Norm) Risk management, Risk assessment techniques.

ISO/IEC Guide 73 (2009) Risk management – Vocabulary – Guidelines for use in standards.

Also see:

COSO Enterprise Risk Management – Integrated Framework (2004). Available for purchase at: http://www.cpa2biz.com/AST/Main/CPA2BIZ_Primary/InternalControls/COSO/PRDOVR~PC-990015/PC-990015.jsp [Free Executive Summary available at: http://www.coso.org/documents/COSO_ERM_ExecutiveSummary.pdf]


Web resources

Barfield, R. Risk appetite: how hungry are you? Price Waterhouse Coopers (N.D.) [financial]

Bullock, V.M. 2014. Significance assessment as a way to salvage prioritising. Essays from the Museum Heritage Risk Management Professional Training Institute. Ibermuseus seminar held in Brasilia, Brazil in 2011, pp. 272-278: http://www.significanceinternational.com/Portals/0/Documents/IbermuseusRiskManagementInstitueEssays_2011.pdf

Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI), International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), Instituut Collectie Nederlands (ICN), 2007, Sources of Information for Cultural Heritage Risk Management [collections]

Furedi, F. 2011. What does it take to be a good leader and what is a good leader? John Bonython Lecture by the Centre for Independent Studies, Sydney. Available from ABC Radio National's Big Ideas program at: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/bigideas/big-ideas-24th-january/3782838

KPMG. 2008. Understanding and articulating risk appetite [financial]

ICCROM and Canadian Conservation Institute. 2012. Reducing Risks to Heritage: International Meeting 28-30 November, Amersfoort, The Netherlands. 

Leitch, M. 2010 Making sense of risk appetite, tolerance, and acceptance (2nd edition), [financial]: http://www.internalcontrolsdesign.co.uk/appetite/full.shtml

Michalski, S. 2004. Care and preservation of collections. In P.J. Boylan (ed) Running a Museum: a practical handbook. International Council of Museums, UNESCO, Paris: 51-89

National Standards Taskforce. 2014. National Standards for Australian Museums and Galleries, Version 1.4 October. Available at: http://www.magsq.com.au/cms/page.asp?ID=5426

New South Wales Department of State and Regional Development and the Global Risk Alliance Pty Ltd. 2005. Risk Management Guide for Small Business, Sydney, 66pp.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2011. Future Global Shocks: Improving Risk Governance. Available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/governance/future-global-shocks_9789264114586-en 

Olney, W. 2012. James Cuno on Timothy Potts and the Getty's new 'appetite for risk'. Which way LA radio program on KCRW, 21 February. Available at: http://chasingaphrodite.com/tag/kcrw/

Risk Awareness Profiling Tool (2010), Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (UK) [collecting organisations]: http://www.raptonline.org.uk/home.asp

Risk Management Policy documents, Exeter City Council (UK) [governance]: http://www.exeter.gov.uk/index.aspx?articleid=5613

Other resources

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 2011. ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications. Chapter 23 – Museums, Galleries, Archives and Libraries: 1-23.

Essential scientific reading for collecting organisation ‘best practice’ on air quality, temperature, relative humidity requirements. See: http://www.ashrae.org/resources--publications/a-brief-history-of-the-ashrae-handbook for background information.

Canadian Conservation Institute. 1994. Framework for Preservation of Museum Collections Wallchart:

An easy-to-use matrix format, this wall chart outlines various methods that can be used to avoid or control potential deterioration of museum objects. The rows list nine agents of deterioration (direct physical forces: thieves, vandals, displacers; fire; water; pests; contaminants; radiation; incorrect temperature and incorrect relative humidity), while the columns present three different levels at which the agents of deterioration can be controlled. The procedures column outlines actions that can be taken.

Price (laminated) in Canada: $45.00 Other Countries: $56.25 Dimensions: 66 x 92 cm (26 x 36.25”)

National Standards Taskforce. 2010. National Standards for Australian Museums and Galleries. Version 1.1. December. [NB The notes below derive from Version 1.1. Version 1.4 dated October 2014 is now available here]

Risk Management references:

Part A – Managing the Museum

Principle A2 – The museum is effectively managed, sustainable and publicly accountable

Standard A2.6 – The museum identifies and assesses risks and has strategies in place to manage them.

Benchmark A2.6.1 – Risk management is part of the museum’s strategic and financial planning, through up-to-date policies, procedures and strategies.


Risks can affect a museum’s:

·         brand

·         buildings

·         business

·         collection

·         finances

·         governing body

·         legal status

·         performance

·         reputation

·         resources

·         site

·         viability

·         visitors

·         workers

A fraud policy and relevant financial training for staff may be useful. Annual budgets should include provision for the ‘excess’ component in insurance policies.


AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 Australian /New Zealand/International Standard Risk management – principles and guidelines. [updated]

Museums & Galleries New South Wales, Risk Management and School Excursions (2007). Available at: http://mgnsw.org.au/sector/resources/online-resources/education/school-excursions-and-risk-management/

Museum & Gallery Services Queensland, Risk Management Fact Sheet. Available at: http://www.magsq.com.au/_dbase_upl/Risk%20Management2012.pdf

Volunteering Australia, Running the Risk? (2003), pp15-19. Available at: http://volunteeringaustralia.org/wp-content/files_mf/1377053059VAManagersrunningtherisk.pdf

Benchmark A2.6.2 – Occupational health and safety (OH&S) obligations are fulfilled.


              It is essential that museums have up-to-date OH&S policies and procedures in place.

OH&S legislation is specific to each state and territory, so regional variations may apply. [Consult the publication for more information on OH&S strategies]


Kelly, S 2002 Travelling Exhibitions: a practical handbook for metropolitan and regional galleries and museums, NETS Victoria. Chapter 11. Available for purchase at: http://netsaustralia.org.au/about/

Conole, Hallett & Grant, Heritage Artefacts – Hands On, Hands Off? (1993). [Note: this resource is no longer easily accessible with the closure of the Collections Australia Network in 2010.]

Benchmark A2.6.3 – Adequate and appropriate insurance cover is maintained for the site, buildings, workers, visitors, the governing body, and the collection.

Insurance to cover the museum’s governing body is sometimes necessary, and in some circumstances it is appropriate to insure the museum’s collection, or specific items within it.

For insurance and recovery purposes, it is useful to identify, value and photograph:

·         significant collection items

·         key items of equipment

·         other infrastructure


NAVA, The Code of Practice for the Professional Australian Visual Arts, Craft & Design Sector (2009). To purchase see: https://visualarts.net.au/code-of-practice/

Simpson, Collections Law, Chapter 39. Available at: http://www.collectionslaw.com.au/

Benchmark A2.6.4 – All required certificates and licences have been obtained and are kept current.


Certificates and licences may be needed for:

·        electrical wiring

·         firearms

·         food and alcohol sales and service

·         forklifts

·         hazardous materials

·         machinery

·         rail safety

·         steam boilers and pressure vessels

.         vehicle registration 


Museums Australia, Museum Methods (2002), section 1.4. To purchase see: http://www.museumsaustralia.org.au/site/publications.php

Simpsons Solicitors, The Duty of Care to the Public

Principle A4 – The museum is a secure, well-managed facility that presents a positive public image. [Consult the publication for more information under each of the following identified Standards]

Standard A4.1 – The museum has security of tenure for its premises.

Standards A4.2 – The museum dedicates appropriate spaces to all activities.

Standard A4.3 – The museum conserves, maintains, protects and documents its assets.

New South Wales Department of State and Regional Development and the Global Risk Alliance Pty. Ltd. 2005. Risk Management Guide for Small Business. Based on AS/NZS 4360 2004. Contains some useful templates.